‘Honeymoon phase’: What’s next for the world’s biggest malaria vaccine
A new generation of malaria vaccines could be the most important step in reversing the spread of the disease.
In the coming months, experts say, the World Health Organization is expected to issue a new set of guidelines for how the vaccines should be manufactured.
But if the process isn’t quick, there is little hope of them ever being ready for use.
For now, the WHO says there is no need to worry about the vaccine itself.
But the process of making and testing the vaccine is still very much in its infancy, and it is uncertain if this time around the new generation will be better than the last.
The new vaccines will be called Pembrolizumab and Plasmodium falciparum, and they are designed to target the malaria-causing genes responsible for the spread and transmission of the parasite.
They will be produced by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Atlanta, Georgia.
But before that happens, experts have to make sure the vaccines are safe, safe enough and effective enough.
That means a lot of testing, and also a lot more money.
In 2015, NIAID paid for the entire development of the first three vaccines.
In 2019, NIPC paid for one additional vaccine and two additional testing kits, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.
They also got a loan guarantee from the U and U.K. governments.
The costs for all of those vaccines were $2.6 billion, according to a March report from NIAIDS, which is the agency responsible for developing and administering the vaccines.
So what happens if the first vaccine goes bad?
There are three major scenarios: one in which the vaccine fails and the second fails and then the third fails and so on.
The third failure is called a “pre-mature vaccine failure.”
And so there are a lot, a lot fewer of them.
“There’s no doubt, if you look at the number of vaccines that have been manufactured, the number that are in the pipeline, the likelihood is that the probability of one or two of those failing is very, very low,” said Dr. Josephine Miller, who heads NIAIDs vaccine development program.
But it is still important to have enough vaccine, Miller said.
If the number fails, the risk of a serious vaccine failure is high, too.
If it fails, then it is also very, highly unlikely that a third vaccine would be effective.
“If there is a third failure, it’s a lot harder to figure out what to do next,” she said.
But a vaccine that does succeed is not likely to be ready until 2019, at the earliest, because it would need to be tested to make certain it is safe.
“It’s hard to imagine how that can happen in 2019, and the sooner we get there the better,” Miller said, referring to the start of the next phase of the vaccine development.
A third failure means the vaccine might not be safe enough, and might need to go into the next vaccine cycle, which means the number one vaccine would need testing and more testing, which could take years.
A fourth failure would mean the vaccine would have to be tweaked to make it work better.
“We’re in the honeymoon phase,” Miller added.
“You have a lot to learn about how this is going to work.”
There are also a number of reasons why vaccines might fail: A failure in the manufacturing process could be fatal for the vaccine.
There are no guarantees, for example, that a vaccine made in China is the same vaccine manufactured in the United States.
Also, there are some countries that produce the vaccine in a different country than the one that has produced the vaccine for the U, UK or the U to date.
“I have a concern that there might be some countries, including China, that produce vaccines and we don’t know where the vaccine was manufactured,” said Miller.
Another possibility is that there is some resistance to the vaccine, which might make it unsuitable for some people.
But another possibility is the vaccine could simply fail and not be produced.
“What is a good outcome?
It depends on the vaccine,” said NIAAD’s Miller.
“In the end, if we fail to produce the highest quality vaccine, we’re probably not going to be able to cure malaria.”
That said, experts said it is not impossible for a vaccine to fail.
A vaccine might be too complicated to make.
Some vaccines require multiple doses and are designed for different populations, such as a vaccine for pregnant women or children, so they might not work for everyone.
But in a perfect world, there would be a large pool of vaccine candidates available, experts added.
There is also no guarantee that the vaccine will work in every country.
So while there is concern that the vaccines might not succeed in every one of